LageEurope/Madrid Timezone, Spain. Bodegas Ysios ist eine spanische Weinkellerei in Laguardia im Norden der iberischen Halbinsel. Die Rebflächen des. Exact time now, time zone, time difference, sunrise/sunset time and key facts for Port-of-Spain, Trinidad und Tobago. Historic, present and future dates for daylight saving time and clock changes. Time changes between years and in Spain – San Sebastián are shown.
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End of Spanish Civil War. Outline Index Book Category Portal. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
Phiros was a Grecian by birth, but who had been given a kingdom in Spain. Phiros became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, who also ruled over a kingdom in Spain.
Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c. Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians , Basques and Celts.
Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire , becoming a major theatre of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire.
After an arduous conquest , the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule. During the early Middle Ages it came under Gothic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Muslim invaders from North Africa.
In a process that took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Muslim state fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas. A global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries.
Continued wars and other problems eventually led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire and left the country politically unstable.
Prior to the Second World War, Spain suffered a devastating civil war and came under the rule of an authoritarian government, which oversaw a period of stagnation that was followed by a surge in the growth of the economy.
Eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a cultural renaissance and steady economic growth until the beginning of the 21st century, that started a new globalised world with economic and ecological challenges.
Archaeological research at Atapuerca indicates the Iberian Peninsula was populated by hominids 1. Modern humans first arrived in Iberia, from the north on foot, about 35, years ago.
The largest groups inhabiting the Iberian Peninsula before the Roman conquest were the Iberians and the Celts.
The Iberians inhabited the Mediterranean side of the peninsula, from the northeast to the southeast. The Celts inhabited much of the inner and Atlantic sides of the peninsula, from the northwest to the southwest.
Basques occupied the western area of the Pyrenees mountain range and adjacent areas, the Phoenician-influenced Tartessians culture flourished in the southwest and the Lusitanians and Vettones occupied areas in the central west.
A number of cities were founded along the coast by Phoenicians , and trading outposts and colonies were established by Greeks in the East. Eventually, Phoenician- Carthaginians expanded inland towards the meseta, however due to the bellicose inland tribes the Carthaginians got settled in the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula.
Although it took the Romans nearly two centuries to complete the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula , they retained control of it for over six centuries.
Roman rule was bound together by law, language, and the Roman road. The cultures of the Celtic and Iberian populations were gradually Romanised Latinised at different rates depending on what part of Hispania they lived in, with local leaders being admitted into the Roman aristocratic class.
Agricultural production increased with the introduction of irrigation projects, some of which remain in use. These tribes had crossed the Rhine in early and ravaged Gaul.
The Suebi established a kingdom in what is today modern Galicia and northern Portugal whereas the Vandals established themselves in southern Spain by before crossing over to North Africa in and taking Carthage in As the western empire disintegrated, the social and economic base became greatly simplified: The Byzantines established an occidental province, Spania , in the south, with the intention of reviving Roman rule throughout Iberia.
Eventually, however, Hispania was reunited under Visigothic rule. These Visigoths , or Western Goths, after sacking Rome under the leadership of Alaric , turned towards the Iberian Peninsula , with Athaulf for their leader, and occupied the northeastern portion.
Wallia extended his rule over most of the peninsula, keeping the Suebians shut up in Galicia. Euric , who put an end to the last remnants of Roman power in the peninsula, may be considered the first monarch of Spain, though the Suebians still maintained their independence in Galicia.
Euric was also the first king to give written laws to the Visigoths. In the following reigns the Catholic kings of France assumed the role of protectors of the Hispano-Roman Catholics against the Arianism of the Visigoths, and in the wars which ensued Alaric II and Amalaric lost their lives.
Athanagild , having risen against King Agila , called in the Byzantines and, in payment for the succour they gave him, ceded to them the maritime places of the southeast Liuvigild restored the political unity of the peninsula, subduing the Suebians, but the religious divisions of the country, reaching even the royal family, brought on a civil war.
Recared , son of Liuvigild and brother of St. Hermengild, added religious unity to the political unity achieved by his father, accepting the Catholic faith in the Third Council of Toledo The religious unity established by this council was the basis of that fusion of Goths with Hispano-Romans which produced the Spanish nation.
Sisebut and Suintila completed the expulsion of the Byzantines from Spain. Intermarriage between Visigoths and Hispano-Romans was prohibited, though in practice it could not be entirely prevented and was eventually legalised by Liuvigild.
Isidore was one of the most influential clerics and philosophers in the Middle Ages in Europe, and his theories were also vital to the conversion of the Visigothic Kingdom from an Arian domain to a Catholic one in the Councils of Toledo.
Isidore created the first western encyclopaedia which had a huge impact during the Middle Ages. In the 8th century, nearly all of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered — by largely Moorish Muslim armies from North Africa.
These conquests were part of the expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate. Only a small area in the mountainous north-west of the peninsula managed to resist the initial invasion.
Legend has it that Count Julian , the governor of Ceuta, in revenge for the violation of his daughter, Florinda , by King Roderic , invited the Muslims and opened to them the gates of the peninsula.
Under Islamic law , Christians and Jews were given the subordinate status of dhimmi. This status permitted Christians and Jews to practice their religions as People of the Book but they were required to pay a special tax and had legal and social rights inferior to those of Muslims.
Conversion to Islam proceeded at an increasing pace. The Muslim community in the Iberian Peninsula was itself diverse and beset by social tensions.
The Berber people of North Africa, who had provided the bulk of the invading armies, clashed with the Arab leadership from the Middle East.
Mediterranean trade and cultural exchange flourished. Muslims imported a rich intellectual tradition from the Middle East and North Africa.
Some important philosophers at the time were Averroes , Ibn Arabi and Maimonides. The Romanised cultures of the Iberian Peninsula interacted with Muslim and Jewish cultures in complex ways, giving the region a distinctive culture.
In the 11th century, the Muslim holdings fractured into rival Taifa states Arab, Berber, and Slav ,  allowing the small Christian states the opportunity to greatly enlarge their territories.
This re-united Islamic state experienced more than a century of successes that partially reversed Christian gains.
The Reconquista Reconquest was the centuries-long period in which Christian rule was re-established over the Iberian Peninsula. The Reconquista is viewed as beginning with the Battle of Covadonga won by Don Pelayo in and was concurrent with the period of Muslim rule on the Iberian Peninsula.
The Kingdom of Castile , formed from Leonese territory, was its successor as strongest kingdom. The kings and the nobility fought for power and influence in this period.
The example of the Roman emperors influenced the political objective of the Crown, while the nobles benefited from feudalism. Muslim armies had also moved north of the Pyrenees but they were defeated by Frankish forces at the Battle of Poitiers , Frankia and pushed out of the very southernmost region of France along the seacoast by the s.
Later, Frankish forces established Christian counties on the southern side of the Pyrenees. These areas were to grow into the kingdoms of Navarre and Aragon.
The County of Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon entered in a dynastic union and gained territory and power in the Mediterranean.
In Majorca was conquered, so was Valencia in The break-up of Al-Andalus into the competing taifa kingdoms helped the long embattled Iberian Christian kingdoms gain the initiative.
The capture of the strategically central city of Toledo in marked a significant shift in the balance of power in favour of the Christian kingdoms.
In the 13th and 14th centuries, the Marinid dynasty of Morocco invaded and established some enclaves on the southern coast but failed in their attempt to re-establish North African rule in Iberia and were soon driven out.
From the mid 13th century, literature and philosophy started to flourish again in the Christian peninsular kingdoms, based on Roman and Gothic traditions.
An important philosopher from this time is Ramon Llull. Abraham Cresques was a prominent Jewish cartographer. Roman law and its institutions were the model for the legislators.
The king Alfonso X of Castile focused on strengthening this Roman and Gothic past, and also on linking the Iberian Christian kingdoms with the rest of medieval European Christendom.
Alfonso worked for being elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and published the Siete Partidas code. The Toledo School of Translators is the name that commonly describes the group of scholars who worked together in the city of Toledo during the 12th and 13th centuries, to translate many of the philosophical and scientific works from Classical Arabic , Ancient Greek , and Ancient Hebrew.
The Islamic transmission of the classics is the main Islamic contributions to Medieval Europe. The Castilian language—more commonly known especially later in history and at present as "Spanish" after becoming the national language and lingua franca of Spain—evolved from Vulgar Latin , as did other Romance languages of Spain like the Catalan , Asturian and Galician languages, as well as other Romance languages in Latin Europe.
The Black Death of and devastated Spain. Having conquered these, they turned their arms against the Byzantines, who treacherously slew their leaders; but for this treachery the Spaniards, under Bernard of Rocafort and Berenguer of Entenca, exacted the terrible penalty celebrated in history as "The Catalan Vengeance" and moreover seized the Frankish Duchy of Athens Anti-Semitic animus accompanied the Reconquista.
There were mass killings in Aragon in the midth century, and 12, Jews were killed in Toledo. In , Christian mobs went from town to town throughout Castile and Aragon, killing an estimated 50, Jews.
According to Hasdai Crescas , about 70 Jewish communities were destroyed. The year also marked the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the New World , during a voyage funded by Isabella.
Large numbers of indigenous Americans died in battle against the Spaniards during the conquest,  while others died from various other causes.
Miscegenation was the rule between the native and the Spanish cultures and people. Juan Sebastian Elcano completed the first voyage around the world in human history, the Magellan-Elcano circumnavigation.
Augustine became a strategic defensive base for Spanish ships full of gold and silver sailing to Spain. The Spanish once again encountered Islam, but this time in Southeast Asia and in order to incorporate the Philippines , Spanish expeditions organised from newly Christianised Mexico had invaded the Philippine territories of the Sultanate of Brunei.
The Spanish considered the war with the Muslims of Brunei and the Philippines , a repeat of the Reconquista. The unification of the crowns of Aragon and Castile by the marriage of their sovereigns laid the basis for modern Spain and the Spanish Empire, although each kingdom of Spain remained a separate country socially, politically, legally, and in currency and language.
There were two big revolts against the new Habsburg monarch and the more authoritarian and imperial-style crown: Germana de Foix also finished with the revolt in the Mediterranean.
Through exploration and conquest or royal marriage alliances and inheritance, the Spanish Empire expanded to include vast areas in the Americas, islands in the Asia-Pacific area, areas of Italy, cities in Northern Africa, as well as parts of what are now France, Germany, Belgium , Luxembourg , and the Netherlands.
The first circumnavigation of the world was carried out in — It was the first empire on which it was said that the sun never set. This was an Age of Discovery , with daring explorations by sea and by land, the opening-up of new trade routes across oceans, conquests and the beginnings of European colonialism.
Spanish explorers brought back precious metals , spices, luxuries, and previously unknown plants, and played a leading part in transforming the European understanding of the globe.
The expansion of the empire caused immense upheaval in the Americas as the collapse of societies and empires and new diseases from Europe devastated American indigenous populations.
The rise of humanism , the Counter-Reformation and new geographical discoveries and conquests raised issues that were addressed by the intellectual movement now known as the School of Salamanca , which developed the first modern theories of what are now known as international law and human rights.
Juan Luis Vives was another prominent humanist during this period. The Protestant Reformation dragged the kingdom ever more deeply into the mire of religiously charged wars.
The result was a country forced into ever expanding military efforts across Europe and in the Mediterranean. These conflicts drained it of resources and undermined the economy generally.
The decline culminated in a controversy over succession to the throne which consumed the first years of the 18th century. The War of the Spanish Succession was a wide-ranging international conflict combined with a civil war, and was to cost the kingdom its European possessions and its position as one of the leading powers on the Continent.
Long united only by the Crown, a true Spanish state was established when the first Bourbon king, Philip V , united the crowns of Castile and Aragon into a single state, abolishing many of the old regional privileges and laws.
The 18th century saw a gradual recovery and an increase in prosperity through much of the empire. The new Bourbon monarchy drew on the French system of modernising the administration and the economy.
Bourbon reformers created formal disciplined militias across the Atlantic. In , Spain went to war against the revolutionary new French Republic as a member of the first Coalition.
The subsequent War of the Pyrenees polarised the country in a reaction against the gallicised elites and following defeat in the field, peace was made with France in at the Peace of Basel in which Spain lost control over two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola.
In , a secret treaty between Napoleon and the unpopular prime minister led to a new declaration of war against Britain and Portugal.
Joseph Bonaparte was seen as a puppet monarch and was regarded with scorn by the Spanish. The 2 May revolt was one of many nationalist uprisings across the country against the Bonapartist regime.
Napoleon was forced to intervene personally, defeating several Spanish armies and forcing a British army to retreat.
These events foreshadowed the conflict between conservatives and liberals in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The Napoleonic War left Spain economically ruined, deeply divided and politically unstable.
In the s and s Anti-liberal forces known as Carlists fought against liberals in the Carlist Wars. Liberal forces won, but the conflict between progressive and conservative liberals ended in a weak early constitutional period.
After the Glorious Revolution of and the short-lived First Spanish Republic , a more stable monarchic period began characterised by the practice of turnismo the rotation of government control between progressive and conservative liberals within the Spanish government.
In the late 19th century nationalist movements arose in the Philippines and Cuba. In and the Cuban War of Independence and the Philippine Revolution broke out and eventually the United States became involved.
The Spanish—American War was fought in the spring of and resulted in Spain losing the last of its once vast colonial empire outside of North Africa.
Although the period around the turn of the century was one of increasing prosperity, the 20th century brought little peace; Spain played a minor part in the scramble for Africa , with the colonisation of Western Sahara , Spanish Morocco and Equatorial Guinea.
The heavy losses suffered during the Rif War in Morocco brought discredit to the government and undermined the monarchy. After a period of authoritarian rule under General Miguel Primo de Rivera — , the king determined to seek a solution to the political situation and establish the Constitution, the king led the municipal elections on 12 April These gave a resounding victory to the Republican-Socialist candidacies in large cities and provincial capitals, while the total number of councillors was mostly monarchical.
The organised demonstrations demanding the establishment of a democratic republic led the king to leave the country and the proclamation of the same on 14 April of that same year.
During the Second Republic there was a great political and social upheaval, marked by a sharp radicalisation of the left and the right.
The moderate leaders were boycotted and each party intended to create a Spain to suit them. During the first two years, governed a coalition of republican and socialist parties.
In the elections held in the right triumphed and in , the left. On the other hand, it is also during the Second Republic when important reforms are initiated to modernise the country — democratic constitution, agrarian reform, restructuring of the army, first Statutes of Autonomy Spain was divided into two zones: The situation led to a Civil War , in which the general Francisco Franco was sworn in as the supreme leader of the insurgents.
The Spanish Civil War broke out in For three years the Nationalist forces led by General Francisco Franco and supported by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy fought the Republican side, which was supported by the Soviet Union , Mexico and International Brigades but it was not supported by the Western powers due to the British-led policy of Non-Intervention.
The civil war was viciously fought and there were many atrocities committed by all sides. The war claimed the lives of over , people and caused the flight of up to a half-million citizens from the country.
The state as established under Franco was nominally neutral in the Second World War, although sympathetic to the Axis.
This changed in , during the Cold War period, when it became strategically important for the US to establish a military presence on the Iberian Peninsula as a counter to any possible move by the Soviet Union into the Mediterranean basin.
In the s, Spain registered an unprecedented rate of economic growth which was propelled by industrialisation , a mass internal migration from rural areas to Madrid , Barcelona and the Basque Country and the creation of a mass tourism industry.
With the approval of the new Spanish Constitution of and the restoration of democracy , the State devolved much authority to the regions and created an internal organisation based on autonomous communities.
In the Basque Country, moderate Basque nationalism has coexisted with a radical nationalist movement led by the armed terrorist organisation ETA.
On 23 February , rebel elements among the security forces seized the Cortes in an attempt to impose a military-backed government.
King Juan Carlos took personal command of the military and successfully ordered the coup plotters, via national television, to surrender.
During the s the democratic restoration made possible a growing open society. On 1 January , Spain fully adopted the euro , and Spain experienced strong economic growth, well above the EU average during the early s.
However, well-publicised concerns issued by many economic commentators at the height of the boom warned that extraordinary property prices and a high foreign trade deficit were likely to lead to a painful economic collapse.
Bush in the Iraq War , and a strong movement against war rose in Spanish society. On 11 March a local Islamist terrorist group inspired by Al-Qaeda carried out the largest terrorist attack in Spanish history when they killed people and wounded more than 1, others by bombing commuter trains in Madrid.
Because of the proximity of the election , the issue of responsibility quickly became a political controversy, with the main competing parties PP and PSOE exchanging accusations over the handling of the incident.
Decentralisation was supported with much resistance of Constitutional Court and conservative opposition, so did gender politics like quotas or the law against gender violence.
Government talks with ETA happened, and the group announced its permanent cease of violence in Catalan independentism was also on rise.
A Catalan independence referendum was held on 1 October and then, on 27 October, the Catalan parliament voted to unilaterally declare independence from Spain to form a Catalan Republic   on the day the Spanish Senate was discussing approving direct rule over Catalonia as called for by the Spanish Prime Minister.
On 1 June the Congress of Deputies passed a motion of no-confidence against Rajoy and replaced him with the PSOE leader Pedro Sanchez , thus bringing socialists back to power after 7 years.
Mount Teide Tenerife is the highest mountain peak in Spain and is the third largest volcano in the world from its base.
Spain is a transcontinental country , having territory in both Europe and Africa. On the northeast, along the Pyrenees mountain range, it is bordered by France and the Principality of Andorra.
Mainland Spain is a mountainous country, dominated by high plateaus and mountain chains. The Meseta Central often translated as "Inner Plateau" is a vast plateau in the heart of peninsular Spain.
Alluvial plains are found along the coast, the largest of which is that of the Guadalquivir in Andalusia. Three main climatic zones can be separated, according to geographical situation and orographic conditions: Low-lying areas of the Canary Islands average above The fauna presents a wide diversity that is due in large part to the geographical position of the Iberian peninsula between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and between Africa and Eurasia , and the great diversity of habitats and biotopes , the result of a considerable variety of climates and well differentiated regions.
The vegetation of Spain is varied due to several factors including the diversity of the relief, the climate and latitude. Spain includes different phytogeographic regions, each with its own floristic characteristics resulting largely from the interaction of climate, topography, soil type and fire, biotic factors.
The Spanish Constitution of is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. The constitutional history of Spain dates back to the constitution of As a result, Spain is now composed of 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities with varying degrees of autonomy thanks to its Constitution, which nevertheless explicitly states the indivisible unity of the Spanish nation.
The constitution also specifies that Spain has no state religion and that all are free to practice and believe as they wish. The Spanish administration approved the Gender Equality Act in aimed at furthering equality between genders in Spanish political and economic life.
Spain is a constitutional monarchy , with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral parliament , the Cortes Generales General Courts.
The legislative branch is made up of the Congress of Deputies Congreso de los Diputados with members, elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and a Senate Senado with seats of which are directly elected by popular vote, using a limited voting method, and the other 51 appointed by the regional legislatures to also serve four-year terms.
Health and education systems among others are managed by the Spanish communities, and in addition, the Basque Country and Navarre also manage their own public finances based on foral provisions.
The Spanish Constitution of "protect all Spaniards and all the peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions".
According to Amnesty International AI , government investigations of alleged police abuses are often lengthy and punishments were light.
Spain provides one of the highest degrees of liberty in the world for its LGBT community. The Spanish State is integrated by 17 autonomous communities and 2 autonomous cities, both groups being the highest or first-order administrative division in the country.
Autonomous communities are integrated by provinces, of which there are 50 in total, and in turn, provinces are integrated by municipalities.
In Catalonia, two additional divisions exist, the comarques sing. The concept of a comarca exists in all autonomous communities, however, unlike Catalonia, these are merely historical or geographical subdivisions.
They were created after the current constitution came into effect in in recognition of the right to self-government of the " nationalities and regions of Spain ".
This territorial organisation, based on devolution , is literally known in Spain as the "State of Autonomies". The basic institutional law of each autonomous community is the Statute of Autonomy.
The Statutes of Autonomy establish the name of the community according to its historical and contemporary identity, the limits of its territories, the name and organisation of the institutions of government and the rights they enjoy according to the constitution.
Catalonia, Galicia and the Basque Country, which identified themselves as nationalities , were granted self-government through a rapid process.
Andalusia also took that denomination in its first Statute of Autonomy, even though it followed the longer process stipulated in the constitution for the rest of the country.
Progressively, other communities in revisions to their Statutes of Autonomy have also taken that denomination in accordance to their historical and modern identities, such as the Valencian Community,  the Canary Islands,  the Balearic Islands,  and Aragon.
The autonomous communities have wide legislative and executive autonomy, with their own parliaments and regional governments.
The distribution of powers may be different for every community, as laid out in their Statutes of Autonomy, since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical.
Only two communities—the Basque Country and Navarre—have full fiscal autonomy. Aside of fiscal autonomy, the nationalities —Andalusia, the Basque Country, Catalonia, and Galicia—were devolved more powers than the rest of the communities, among them the ability of the regional president to dissolve the parliament and call for elections at any time.
In addition, the Basque Country, Catalonia and Navarre have police corps of their own: Nonetheless, recent amendments to existing Statutes of Autonomy or the promulgation of new Statutes altogether, have reduced the asymmetry between the powers originally granted to the nationalities and the rest of the regions.
Finally, along with the 17 autonomous communities, two autonomous cities are also part of the State of Autonomies and are first-order territorial divisions: These are two exclaves located in the northern African coast.
Autonomous communities are subdivided into provinces , which served as their territorial building blocks. In turn, provinces are integrated by municipalities.
The existence of both the provinces and the municipalities is guaranteed and protected by the constitution, not necessarily by the Statutes of Autonomy themselves.
Municipalities are granted autonomy to manage their internal affairs, and provinces are the territorial divisions designed to carry out the activities of the State.
The current provincial division structure is based—with minor changes—on the territorial division by Javier de Burgos , and in all, the Spanish territory is divided into 50 provinces.
The communities of Asturias, Cantabria, La Rioja, the Balearic Islands, Madrid, Murcia and Navarre are the only communities that are integrated by a single province, which is coextensive with the community itself.
In these cases, the administrative institutions of the province are replaced by the governmental institutions of the community. As a member of NATO since , Spain has established itself as a participant in multilateral international security activities.
Even on many international issues beyond western Europe, Spain prefers to co-ordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political co-operation mechanisms.
Spain has maintained its special relations with Hispanic America and the Philippines. Its policy emphasises the concept of an Ibero-American community, essentially the renewal of the concept of " Hispanidad " or " Hispanismo " , [ citation needed ] as it is often referred to in English, which has sought to link the Iberian Peninsula with Hispanic America through language, commerce, history and culture.
Spain claims Gibraltar , a 6-square-kilometre 2. Then a Spanish town, it was conquered by an Anglo-Dutch force in during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of Archduke Charles , pretender to the Spanish throne.
The legal situation concerning Gibraltar was settled in by the Treaty of Utrecht , in which Spain ceded the territory in perpetuity to the British Crown  stating that, should the British abandon this post, it would be offered to Spain first.
Since the s Spain has called for the return of Gibraltar. The overwhelming majority of Gibraltarians strongly oppose this, along with any proposal of shared sovereignty.
The Spanish claim makes a distinction between the isthmus that connects the Rock to the Spanish mainland on the one hand, and the Rock and city of Gibraltar on the other.
While the Rock and city were ceded by the Treaty of Utrecht, Spain asserts that the "occupation of the isthmus is illegal and against the principles of International Law ".
Another claim by Spain is about the Savage Islands , part of Portugal. In clash with the Portuguese position, Spain claims that they are rocks rather than islands, and therefore Spain does not accept any extension of the Portuguese Exclusive Economic Zone nautical miles generated by the islands, while acknowledging the Selvagens having territorial waters 12 nautical miles.
On 5 July , Spain sent a letter to the UN expressing these views. Spain claims the sovereignty over the Perejil Island , a small, uninhabited rocky islet located in the South shore of the Strait of Gibraltar.
Its sovereignty is disputed between Spain and Morocco. It was the subject of an armed incident between the two countries in The incident ended when both countries agreed to return to the status quo ante which existed prior to the Moroccan occupation of the island.
The islet is now deserted and without any sign of sovereignty. Besides the Perejil Island, the Spanish-held territories claimed by other countries are two: Portugal stance has been the territory being de iure Portuguese territory and de facto Spanish.
The Spanish Armed Forces are divided into three branches: Since , CO2 emissions have risen notably, not reaching the reduction emissions promised in the Kyoto Protocol for fighting climate change.
In the period — more than half of the years have been qualified as dry or very dry. Spain is the country in Europe more exposed to climate change effects, according to Al Gore.
Electricity from renewable sources in Spain represented The country has a very large wind power capability built up over many years and is one of the world leaders in wind power generation.
Spain also positioned itself as a European leader in Solar power, by — the country was second only to Germany in installed capacity. Unemployment stood at By the mids the economy had recommenced the growth that had been disrupted by the global recession of the early s.
With the government budget in balance and inflation under control Spain was admitted into the Eurozone in Since the s some Spanish companies have gained multinational status, often expanding their activities in culturally close Latin America.
Spain is the second biggest foreign investor there, after the United States. Spanish companies have also expanded into Asia, especially China and India.
The reason for this early expansion is the booming interest towards Spanish language and culture in Asia and Africa and a corporate culture that learned to take risks in unstable markets.
The automotive industry is one of the largest employers in the country. In Spain was the 8th largest automobile producer country in the world and the 2nd largest car manufacturer in Europe after Germany.
By , the automotive industry was generating 8. Crop areas were farmed in two highly diverse manners. They included the humid regions of the north and the northwest, as well as vast arid zones that had not been irrigated.
More than half of the irrigated area was planted in corn , fruit trees , and vegetables. Other agricultural products that benefited from irrigation included grapes, cotton, sugar beets , potatoes, legumes , olive trees , mangos, strawberries , tomatoes, and fodder grasses.
Because of the changed diet of an increasingly affluent population, there was a notable increase in the consumption of livestock, poultry, and dairy products.
Increased attention to livestock was the reason that Spain became a net importer of grains. Fresh vegetables and fruits produced through intensive irrigation farming also became important export commodities, as did sunflower seed oil that was produced to compete with the more expensive olive oils in oversupply throughout the Mediterranean countries of the European Community.
In , Spain was the second most visited country in the world, recording 82 million tourists which marked the fifth consecutive year of record-beating numbers.
Castile and Leon is the Spanish leader in rural tourism linked to its environmental and architectural heritage. Non-renewable energy sources used in Spain are nuclear 8 operative reactors , gas , coal , and oil.
Spain has the most extensive high-speed rail network in Europe, and the second-most extensive in the world after China. On average, the Spanish high-speed train is the fastest one in the world, followed by the Japanese bullet train and the French TGV.
There are 47 public airports in Spain. Also, more than 30 airports with the number of passengers below 4 million.
In the 19th and 20th centuries science in Spain was held back by severe political instability and consequent economic underdevelopment.
Despite the conditions, some important scientists and engineers emerged. It ranked as the 5th top governmental scientific institution worldwide and 32th overall in the SCImago Institutions Rankings.
Since the Mobile World Congress has taken place in Barcelona.. With the exception of the region surrounding the capital, Madrid , the most populated areas lie around the coast.
In , Spain granted citizenship to 84, persons, mostly to people from Ecuador, Colombia and Morocco. They reside primarily on the Mediterranean coast and the Balearic islands, where many choose to live their retirement or telecommute.
Substantial populations descended from Spanish colonists and immigrants exist in other parts of the world, most notably in Latin America.
Around , Spaniards emigrated in the 16th century, mostly to Peru and Mexico. During the same period perhaps , went to Latin America.
The Spanish Constitution of , in its second article, recognises several contemporary entities — nationalities — [m] and regions, within the context of the Spanish nation.
Spain is de facto a plurinational state. In some cases some of the territorial identities may conflict with the dominant Spanish culture.
Distinct traditional identities within Spain include the Basques , Catalans , Galicians , Andalusians and Valencians ,  although to some extent all of the 17 autonomous communities may claim a distinct local identity.
It is this last feature of "shared identity" between the more local level or autonomous community and the Spanish level which makes the identity question in Spain complex and far from univocal.
Spain has a number of descendants of populations from former colonies, especially Latin America and North Africa. Smaller numbers of immigrants from several Sub-Saharan countries have recently been settling in Spain.
There are also sizeable numbers of Asian immigrants, most of whom are of Middle Eastern, South Asian and Chinese origin.
The single largest group of immigrants are European; represented by large numbers of Romanians, Britons, Germans , French and others. The arrival of the gitanos , a Romani people , began in the 16th century; estimates of the Spanish Roma population range from , to over one million.
Their origin is unclear. Historically, Sephardi Jews and Moriscos are the main minority groups originated in Spain and with a contribution to Spanish culture.
According to the Spanish government there were 5. According to residence permit data for , more than , were Romanian, about , were Moroccan , approximately , were British, and , were Ecuadorian.
This sudden and ongoing inflow of immigrants, particularly those arriving illegally by sea, has caused noticeable social tension.
Within the EU, Spain had the 2nd highest immigration rate in percentage terms after Cyprus , but by a great margin, the highest in absolute numbers, up to In , the government instituted a "Plan of Voluntary Return" which encouraged unemployed immigrants from outside the EU to return to their home countries and receive several incentives, including the right to keep their unemployment benefits and transfer whatever they contributed to the Spanish Social Security.
In alone, more than half a million people left Spain. Spain is legally multilingual,  and the constitution establishes that the nation will protect "all Spaniards and the peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions.
The constitution also establishes that "the other Spanish languages"—that is, the other languages of Spain—will also be official in their respective autonomous communities in accordance to their Statutes , their organic regional legislations, and that the "richness of the distinct linguistic modalities of Spain represents a patrimony which will be the object of special respect and protection.
In the North African Spanish autonomous city of Melilla , Riff Berber is spoken by a significant part of the population. Similarly, in Ceuta Darija Arabic is spoken by a significant percentage of the population.
In the tourist areas of the Mediterranean coast and the islands, English and German are widely spoken by tourists, foreign residents, and tourism workers.
State education in Spain is free and compulsory from the age of six to sixteen. The institute was inspired by the philosophy of Krausism. The health care system of Spain Spanish National Health System is considered one of the best in the world, in 7th position in the ranking elaborated by the World Health Organization.
Roman Catholicism , which has a long history in Spain, remains the dominant religion. Although it no longer has official status by law, in all public schools in Spain students have to choose either a religion or ethics class.
Catholicism is the religion most commonly taught, although the teaching of Islam,  Judaism,  and evangelical Christianity  is also recognised in law.
Most Spaniards do not participate regularly in religious services. The Spanish constitution enshrines secularism in governance, as well as freedom of religion or belief for all, saying that no religion should have a "state character," while allowing for the state to "cooperate" with religious groups.
However, significant anomalies remain, including the presence of a blasphemy law in statute, which theoretically criminalises criticism of religion.
A blasphemy prosecution in Spain has happened as recently as There have been four Spanish Popes. Later, they became Doctors of the Church.
The Society of Jesus was co-founded by Ignatius of Loyola , whose Spiritual Exercises and movement led to the establishment of hundreds of colleges and universities in the world, including 28 in the United States alone.
Protestant churches have about 1,, members. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has approximately 46, adherents in congregations in all regions of the country and has a temple in the Moratalaz District of Madrid.
The vast majority was composed of immigrants and descendants originating from Morocco and other African countries. The recent waves of immigration have also led to an increasing number of Hindus , Buddhists , Sikhs and Muslims.
After the Reconquista in , Muslims did not live in Spain for centuries. Late 19th-century colonial expansion in northwestern Africa gave a number of residents in Spanish Morocco and Western Sahara full citizenship.
Their ranks have since been bolstered by recent immigration, especially from Morocco and Algeria. Judaism was practically non-existent in Spain from the expulsion until the 19th century, when Jews were again permitted to enter the country.
Currently there are around 62, Jews in Spain, or 0. Most are arrivals in the past century, while some are descendants of earlier Spanish Jews.
Approximately 80, Jews are thought to have lived in Spain prior to its expulsion. Other sources suggest , converts mostly after the pogroms of and upwards of , expelled.
The descendants of these Sephardic Jews expelled in are given the Spanish nationality if they request so. Spain is a Western country.
Almost every aspect of Spanish life is permeated by its Roman heritage, making Spain one of the major Latin countries of Europe. The centuries-long colonial era globalised Spanish language and culture, with Spain also absorbing the cultural and commercial products of its diverse empire.
The earliest recorded examples of vernacular Romance-based literature date from the same time and location, the rich mix of Muslim, Jewish, and Christian cultures in Muslim Spain, in which Maimonides, Averroes, and others worked, the Kharjas Jarchas.
During the Reconquista , the epic poem Cantar de Mio Cid was written about a real man—his battles, conquests, and daily life. It is also remarkable the Valencian chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch written in Valencian.
The Baroque is the most important period for Spanish culture. We are in the times of the Spanish Empire. Other writers from the period are: In the spirit of general "Realism", Realist authors opted for depictions of everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of romanticised or stylised presentations.
The "Disaster" of led established writers to seek practical political, economic, and social solutions in essays grouped under the literary heading of Regeneracionismo.
The Generation of or Novecentismo. Salvador de Madariaga , another prominent intellectual and writer, was one of the founders of the College of Europe and the composer of the constitutive manifest of the Liberal International.
All were scholars of their national literary heritage, again evidence of the impact of the calls of regeneracionistas and the Generation of for Spanish intelligence to turn at least partially inwards.
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